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expand Radar Classifier for Small Manned Air Targets
Gilles Prémel-Cabic; Jacco J.M. de Wit; Miguel Caro Cuenca
Abstract: The ALFA project aims at timely detection, tracking, classification, and intent assessment of LSS targets. The system relies on a heterogeneous sensor suite, including radar. The objective of the radar component is sector surveillance including target classification. Since the revisit time needs to be short, classification must be done with very short time-on-target. Based on measurements, three suitable features for classification of two relevant target classes, i.e., small aircraft and helicopters, have been developed. These features exploit the targets’ micro-Doppler characteristics and their evolution over time. Best classification performance is obtained by using a combination of these features and by considering the variation of the features’ distributions depending on the signal-to-noise ratio.


expand A modular localization system combining passive RF detection and passive radar
Markus Krueckemeier, Fabian Schwartau, Joerg Schoebel
Abstract: This paper presents a completely passive system for detection and localization of small aircraft and UAVs. The system makes use of the fact that almost any such target emits some kind of RF emission, either by active transmissions or by passive reflection of other sources. Active transmissions can for example be caused by telemetry or video downlinks to a remote control or some kind of unintended emission like a mobile phone carried by a passenger. These transmissions can be identified by means of passive detection. At the same time, passive reflections of signals radiated by illuminators of opportunity like FM radio stations can be used to build a multistatic passive radar.


expand Synchronization of multiple USRP SDRs for coherent receiver applications
Markus Krueckemeier; Fabian Schwartau; Carsten Monka-Ewe; Joerg Schoebel
Abstract: This paper describes the necessary means to combine multiple Ettus Research USRP X310 software-defined radios to a multichannel coherent receiver for direction-of-arrival (DoA) and passive radar applications. The requirements to combine several software-defined radios to a multichannel coherent receiver are examined in general. In particular the requirement of phase coherence necessitates a closer look on the receiver synchronization, since the straightforward approach of synchronizing the systems with a common reference clock will in most cases lead to phase ambiguities between the channels. The mechanism inducing these phase ambiguities between several systems that are phase-locked to a common reference is discussed in detail. Results regarding the achieved phase stability and a preliminary measurement demonstrating the DoA capabilities of the system are shown.


expand Automatic threat evaluation for border security and surveillance
Bert van den Broek; Jos van der Velde; Michiel van den Baar; Loek Nijsten; Rob van Heijster
Abstract: We present a study of border surveillance systems for automatic threat estimation. The surveillance systems should allow border control operators to be triggered in time so that adequate responses are possible. Examples of threats are smuggling, possibly by using small vessels, cars or drones, and threats caused by unwanted persons (e.g. terrorists) crossing the border. These threats are revealed by indicators which are often not exact and evidence for these indicators incorporates significant amounts of uncertainty. This study is linked to the European Horizon 2020 project ALFA, which focuses on the detection and threat evaluation of low flying objects near the strait of Gibraltar. Several methods are discussed to fuse the indicators while taking the uncertainty into account, including Fuzzy Reasoning, Bayesian Reasoning, and Dempster-Shafer Theory. In particular the Dempster-Shafer Theory is elaborated since this approach incorporates evaluation of unknown information next to uncertainty. The method is based on belief functions representing the indicators. These functions show a gradual increase or decrease of the suspiciousness depending on input parameters such as object speed, size etc. The fusion methods give two output values for each track: a suspect probability and an uncertainty value. The complete dynamic risk assessment of detected flying objects is evaluated by the automatic system and targets with probabilities exceeding a certain threshold and appropriate uncertainty values are presented to the border control operators.